Many Moons ago a theory was proposed, which claimed that the small shafts inside the Great Pyramid pointed towards certain stars in the night sky. Furthermore, because the position of these stars changes with the changing millennia, due to the precession of the equinox (the slow precessional wobble of the Earth), a precise date for the construction of the Great Pyramid could be derived.
The southern shafts were said to point towards Sirius and Al Nitak in the belt of Orion, while the northern shafts pointed seemingly randomly into the northern skies. The allocated stars in the northern skies were Kochab and Thuban, with the latter being claimed as being the pole star in 2450 BC.
But this is all rather disingenuous. None of these northern stars are significant in brightness, position or composition, and the claim that Thuban was the 'pole star' is not entirely correct. In reality, Thuban was displaced by 2° from the celestial pole in that era, and displaced a further 0.5˚ from the position that the shaft angle points at.
Despite the theory being artificially forced-to-fit in this manner, it has almost become established as a fact. Open any serious historical report or book on the pyramids, and readers will invariably see a picture of this shaft-pointing theory, and a therefore a date of 2450 BC for the Great Pyramid.
The star-shaft pointing theory. The southern shafts point at Al Nitak and Sirius,
while the northern shafts point somewhat randomly towards the circumpolar stars.
Furthermore, because the Sphinx was designed as an image of Leo, it too can provide a precessional date for the construction of the Giza plateau. It does so by observing the constellation of Leo rising at dawn at the vernal (spring) equinox, which will only happen in certain eras. But while the date for the Great Pyramid derived from the star-shaft pointing theory was 2450 BC, the Giza date derived from the rising of Leo was 10,500 BC, which implies that the entire Giza plateau was very ancient indeed.
Source: Ancient Origins