Ptolemy XII made both of his children his successors - Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII. This decision proved to be unfortunate, because it led to fighting between the two descendants. Ptolemy XIII forced his sister and wife to flee from Egypt to Palestine, where Cleopatra prepared for her return to Egypt.
Cleopatra entered the scene again after Pompey fled to Egypt because of lost battle with Caesar. But Pompey was assassinated by the Egyptians before he entered the country. This murder should be a proof that Egypt distanced itself from Caesar’s enemy and it should prevent Caesar from disembarkment in Egypt. However, Caesar entered the country without hesitation and affected the internal problems of Egypt.
It was a ruthless struggle for royal power, which should have been divided between Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII, children of Ptolemy XII. But the courtiers around the young king achieved that Cleopatra had to leave Alexandria and renounce her share of power. Ptolemy XIII was a plaything in the hands of his advisers – the major role played eunuch Pothenios.
Cleopatra and Caesar
When Caesar learned about the murder of Pompey, he hurried to Egypt, where he landed in 48 BC. In Egypt he realised that there is famine there and the land is on the brink of civil war. However, Cleopatra came into play at that moment. Her courage seemed to force Caesar to change his original opinion about annexing Egypt to Rome as a province. He made a trip round Egypt, during which he became closer with Cleopatra. This journey convinced him that the annexation of Egypt was not the right move at that moment. Although he needed Egyptian grain, he realized at the same time what a threat it would be a powerful province in hands of an ambitious leader, who could gather his loyal and starve Rome out.
Cleopatra accomplished her goal - Caesar affirmed her position of Egyptian queen, but he left three Roman legions in Egypt. Even though Cleopatra was able to maintain the independence of her country, keep the crown for her and become the mistress of a man, who was the most powerful personality of the ancient world. Cleopatra even gave birth to Caesar’s son – Ptolemy XV Caesar, who was given the name Caesarion – Little Caesar by the people of Alexandria.
Cleopatra surrounded Caesar with all the beauty of her empire and Caesar succumbed gladly, because he always inclined to oriental luxury. Caesar saw himself resembling Alexander the Great and Cleopatra won the first man of Rome for her vision of ruling over the world under common leadership. Caesar invited Cleopatra to Rome.