Cleopatra II.

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Cleopatra II.

Cleopatra II. was the daughter of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes and Cleopatra I. She was married to her brother Ptolemy VI. Philometor and two sons and two daughters were born in this marriage – later co-regent Ptolemy Eupator, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator), Cleopatra Thea and Cleopatra III).

Cleopatra II. married Ptolemy VIII. Euergetes II. in 145 BC and their son was born after a year. She took over the rule of the land after a civil war in 132 BC (Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III were forced to flee to Cyprus), but her reign was especially based on the Greeks and the Jews, not the Egyptians. So Ptolemy VIII took the rule of the land back in 130 BC. Then Cleopatra took part in the "reign of three" (Ptolemy VIII, Cleopatra III and Cleopatra II) since 124 BC.

Ptolemy VIII. and Cleopatra II.

Ptolemy VIII. and Cleopatra II.

Ptolemy X. Alexander I.

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Ptolemy X. Alexander I.

Ptolemy X. was the son of Cleopatra III. and Ptolemy VIII. and ruled in Egypt as a Pharaoh in 107 - 88 BC.

Ptolemy IX. was an elder brother of Ptolemy X. After Ptolemy’s VIII. death Ptolemy IX. came to the Egyptian throne, even if Cleopatra III. supported Ptolemy X., who had to settle for reigning over Cyprus. It wasn’t easy at all and had to strive for the reign many years and resist the plots of his siblings, even if he got Cyprus in testament.

Ptolemy X. came to the Egyptian throne because of intrigues of his mother Cleopatra III. in 107 BC. He forced his elder brother to Cyprus and came to the throne himself. He traditionally ruled with his wife-cousin Berenice III.

Ptolemy X. Alexander I.

Ptolemy X. Alexander I.

Ptolemy VII. Neos Philopator

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Ptolemy VII. Neos Philopator

Ptolemy VII. was only 15 years old, when his father died and his mother – Queen Cleopatra II ruled in his name at that time. Her reign lasted for several months up to her wedding with Ptolemy VIII. Euergetes.

Ptolemy VII. was murdered on Ptolemy VIII. command – the King of Cyrene (Cyrene – Kurene in Greek; a city in northern Libya) in 145 BC. His number VII in the Ptolemy dynasty is actually incorrect, because he had never really ruled.

Character of Ptolemy VII

Whoever was Ptolemy VII.? According to one of theories he was a son of King Ptolemy VI. Philometor and Cleopatra II. and ruled together with his father since 145 BC. After a short time he was murdered by his uncle Ptolemy VIII., who came to the throne himself then.

Some Greek scholars identified Ptolemy VII. Neos Philopator with Ptolemy Memphites. It would mean that Ptolemy VII was a son of Ptolemy VIII. and Cleopatra II. and was murdered by his own father. Other tracks lead to a number of minor co-regents and advisers – all of whom were named Ptolemy as all Kings of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

In some older sources, Ptolemy VII. is omitted altogether. This lowers the numbering of all the later Ptolemies, until Caesarion is Ptolemy XIV; the nicknames are unchanged, of course.

Ptolemy VI. Philometor

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Ptolemy VI. Philometor

After Ptolemy V's death, his underage son Ptolemy VI. Philometor came to the throne, whom his guardians ruled in Alexandria instead.

The sixth Syrian war

The sixth Syrian war broke out between Egypt and Syria at the time of the third Macedonian war, which was led by the Romans against Perseus. Antiochus IV. (brother of Cleopatra I, the widow of the King) invaded Egypt. Egyptian envoys set out to the Roman Senate then and they achieved the intervention of the Romans, who forced Antiochus IV. out of Egypt.

Ptolemy VI. ruled in Egypt with his sister and wife Cleopatra II then. His brother reigned over Cyrene, but he wasn't satisfied with it and demanded to entrust the Cyprus to him at the Roman Senate. The Senate granted the request of the younger Ptolemy, but Ptolemy VI. refused to give him the Cyprus.

The Roman Senate provided the younger Ptolemy with 5 envoys, who transported him to Cyprus on war ships. But Ptolemy VI. nevertheless captured his brother. On the other hand he acted indulgently to him, let him keep Cyrene administration and promised him to marry him off with his daughter Cleopatra III.

Cleopatra II Cleopatra III
Cleopatra II Cleopatra III

Ptolemy VI Philometor

Ptolemy VI. Philometor

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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