Raneferef (Neferefre)

Written by Felgr Pavel on .

Raneferef (Neferefre)

Raneferef was the eldest son of Neferirkare and Khentkaus II. and he is also known as Neferefre. According to available proofs an unfinished pyramid was build for this ruler. But Raneferef died early (he was about 20 years old).

Pyramid of Raneferef was rebuilt into a mastaba by his younger brother Nyuserre and in its chantry temple an papyraceous archive and collection of stone statues were discovered amoung others. An interesting fact is, that 200 priests served in his little chantry temple.

Raneferef was worshipped even 200 years after his death. Various celebrations and festivals were staged because of him. However, he was gradually forgotten and his chantry temple was left.

Raneferef

Raneferef

Shepseskare

Written by Felgr Pavel on .

Shepseskare

Shepseskare was an Egyptian Pharaoh of 5th dynasty. The exact lenght of his rule is unknown, Manetho and the Turin King List state, that he ruled for 7 years. We don't know anything about his rule or acts and his tomb is unknow either. He belongs to the least known Pharaohs in ancient Egypt together with Pharaoh Menkauhor from the same dynasty.

An unfinished pyramid was discovered south of Pharaoh Sahure pyramid in Abusir in the eighties of 20th centrury. It is possible, that right this pyramid is the tomb of Pharaoh Shepseskare.

Shepseskare

Shepseskare

Neferirkare Kakai

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Neferirkare Kakai

The eldest son of Sahure - Netjerirenre didn't became the ruler of Egypt after Sahure's death (he wasn't an adult at that time, which wasn't a problem later, when regents ruled instead of underage rulers - e.g. Hatshepsut and Thutmose III). It was Neferirkare, who came to the throne - probably Sahure's brother.

Neferirkare also let build himself a pyramid in Abusir, but it was finished by his successor. Against his tombs Neferirkare let build and finished the biggest of Sun temples, which wasn't found yet as well.

Influence and power of the Pharaoh declined at his period, it was slowly weakened by a strong state bureaucratic apparatus and the priests.

Pyramid of neferirkare

Pyramid of Neferirkare

Sahure

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Sahure

Sahure was a son of Userkaf and likely Khentkaus I. It was the first case in Egypt history, when a Pharaoh married his mother (these marriages between relatives were very frequent under Ptolemaic dynasty rule).

Sahure consolidated the inner conditions in Egypt and made the state administration more effective. He did crusades, especially into Libya, Sinai and Nubia - the purpose was to get slaves, mines, livestock and even beauties for the royal harem. Under his rule copper ore and turquoise were mined in Wadi Maghareh on Sinai, diorite in mines in Abu Simbel, cedarwood was imported from Byblos and he even sent an expedition into mysterious Land of Punt.

Sahure founded a royal necropolis at Abusir, where he built a pyramidal complex near by Userkaf's Sun temple. The rich embossed decoration of this complex is the top of embossed art in Old Kingdom. We know from contemporary written sources, that Sahure built a sun temple as well, but it wasn't found yet.

Sahure

Sahure

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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