Unas

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Unas

Unas ruled for about 30 years and approximately during this time Egypt prospered and traded with Byblos and Nubia. Unas belonged among significant builders and let construct temples and palaces from Elephantine to Saqqara. People remembered him in good undoubtedly, because he was deified later. His chantry temple in northern Saqqara was thoroughly reconstucted 1,000 years later under Ramesses II rule.

The weakening of the power of Pharaoh

A gradual process of ruler power emasculation continued under his rule, on the other hand the number of officers and priests increased. Also the economical situation worsened in the kingdom. Unas visited Elephantine, where he met the headmen of Nubian tribes.

We know few Unas' sons, but neither of them came to the throne after their father's death. The heir apparent of the throne likely died, when Unas was still alive. However, the change of dynasties was apparently made without difficulties. A number of officers from the time of Unas' rule stayed on their places even under Teti's rule, who was his successor. Teti was the first king of 6th dynasty and he married one of Unas' daughters.

Pyramid of Unas

Pyramid of Unas

Djedkare Isesi

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Djedkare Isesi

Djedkare Isesi (2,388 - 2,356 BC) was the last but one Pharaoh of the 5th dynasty. His rule was like a rebirth for Egypt. He tried to renew the power, but the dominance of the top-ranking officials was to strong to stop them. Djedkadre Isesi founded the office of Upper Egypt regent with the seat in Abydos.

Djedkare Isesi reorganized royal chantry cults in Abusir, but he decided to build the pyramid for himself in south Saqqara (base 86 x 86 meters). Under his rule crusades were sent to Byblos and the Land of Punt and also martial expeditions were sent to Nubia.

Under Djedkare Isesi rule also a document "Sebayt" originated, that was written by a minister Ptahhotep, who was made divine later. This book was used as a teaching aid till New Kingdom period. It treats of the right way of living in accordance with Egyptian traditions and upbringing the right official in compliance with state needs.

There were changes in religion and chantry cult as well. The sun cult began to trail off, which could be the reason for Djedkare not to built another Sun temple and the cult of Osiris, the god of deads, gained ground. It made possible for larger amount of people to visit chantry temples.

Djedkare Isesi

Djedkare Isesi

Menkauhor

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Menkauhor

Menkauhor was the successor of Nyuserre on Egyptial throne. His origin is pretty unclear, a family stem wasn't found yet, where this ruler should belong to. According to Turin King List he ruled for 8 years and left a sign in Wadi Maghareh after him.

Menkauhor was the last Pharaoh from the 5th dynasty, who let build a sun temple called Horizon of Ra. Unfortunately neither the temple nor his pyramid wasn't found yet.

Menkauhor

Menkauhor

Nyuserre Ini

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Nyuserre Ini

Native name of Nyuserre was Ini. Queen Khentkaus II ruled for sometime at the time of interregnum and she ensured power for her son Nyuserre. Some courtiers were honoured, such as Ptahshepses, who became a vizier and Nyuserre's son-in-law (his mastaba was the biggest non-royal construction in the Middle Kingdom).

Nyuserre built himself a complex in Abusir, which is different with its plan from the others. He had to finished complexes of his father, brother and mother. The sun temple of this ruler "Delight of Ra" in Abu Gurab is the second found temple of this type.

Nyuserre Ini

Nyuserre Ini

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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