Ahmose, son of Ebana

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His story begins in the period of the Hyksos domination. His father Ebana was a soldier of the 17th dynasty king Tao II., who tried to force the Hyksos out of delta. The sons of Tao II. - Kamose and then Ahmose I. continued in fights with the Hyksos after their father's death. Ahmose I. was successful and forced the Asian invaders out of Egypt.

Ahmose was born in El Kab in Upper Egypt. He became an officer on the ship „Wild bull“ Under Ahmose I. rule and was still a youth when he was chosen by the Pharaoh to replace his father as the royal ship leader. The Pharaoh rewarded the whole family for its loyalty this way.

Ahmose led Theban fleet

The first campaign of Ahmose was into Avaris - the capital of the Hyksos. Ahmose I led his soldieries overland and young Ahmose commanded the rest of Theban flotilla on the Nile. The Egyptians conquered Heliopolis and even quickened their movement. They seized Al Qantarah El Sharqiyya, 150 kilometers to the north, to cut off the escape route from the enemies and prevent potential coming of Hyksos military reinforcements.

After conquering Avaris, Pharaoh pursued the Hyksos into their rear fortress Sharuhen. The Egyptian army was welcomed triumphant in Thebes (Waset) and it was just young Ahmose, who was one of the most celebrated people. But the soldiers couldn't enjoy the peace for a long time – an uprising erupted in the Kingdom of Kush and Ahmose couldn't be missing at that of course.

Ahmose the Egyptian Navy commander

The Egyptian foreign policy changed totally after 18th dynasty came to the throne. After Ahmose I. large areas were conquered by his successors Amenhotep I. and Thutmose I. in Africa and around Euphrates. Ahmose kept his influences after death of Ahmose I., under Amenhotep I. rule, who appreciated the valour of excellent soldier. Amenhotep I. appointed him a title of "royal navy commandant" and also title of "ruler's fellow fighter". It was an exceptional privilege and Ahmose thanks to it belonged to men with the highest position in the land.

Ahmose stayed loyal to a new Pharaoh, Thutmose I., after death of Amenhotep I. New campaings led him into Sudan and Anatolia, where Egyptian soldierie encountered the rising superpower – the Kingdom of Mitanni. Ahmose was still a member of Egyptian navy at the age of seventy. When he deservedly retired, he received many estates and thanks to the rent from the Pharaoh he could spend his time in his native town El Kab as a respected soldier.He let inscribe the story of his life on walls of rock tomb before he died and thanks to it his story has preserved to these days.

Ahmose I.

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Ahmose I.

Ahmose I. managed to force the Hyksos out of Egypt definitively, unified the Egypt again and stimulated the economy during his 25 years reign. His reign is a start of period called the New Kingdom, period of expansion, when Egypt became a world power.

Ahmose I. should came to the Egyptian throne in 1,550 BC, when his brother Kamose died on battle field during a river campaign against the Hyksos. But he was only a boy then, so the royal mother Ahhotep I. came to the throne as a regent. The fight with the Hyksos was deadlocked then.

War with the Hyksos

Ahmose I.Ahmose I. began to fight against the Hyksos approximately in the 11th year of his reign. At first he gained Memphis (Mennefer) and then he also gained the last enemy bastion - their capital Avaris. Then he forced the Hyksos up to Palestina and he broke their resistance definitively, when he destroyed their rear base Sharuhen, which was situated to the south from Gaza. But the fight wasn't easy at all; the siege lasted whole 3 years. Ahmose was encouraged by this success, so he did another campaign, conquered Phoenicia and southern Syria and got to the bank of the Euphrates river as the first Pharaoh.

There was a need to ensure the control over middle Egypt and conquer Nubia again after forcing the Hyksos out of Egypt. Ahmose succeeded in it after three campaigns. Ahmose I. wanted to highlight his dominance over the Kingdom Kush, so he placed the most significant Egyptian administrative center in Buhen and let build the first temple of the New Kingdom period to the south from the city in Sai.

Thebes (Waset) stayed the capital under Ahmose rule and he supported the Amun-Ra cult and under the standard of it unified the country at the expense of the Middle and Lower Egypt deities.

Ahmose I. reorganized the temples administration, took control over the corn market and Egyptian economy was recovered significantly thanks to him, especially because of the number of buildings he built all over the land - in Karnak, Abydos, Buhen, El-Amra, Memphis (Mennefer) and other places. He reopened mines and quarries, because there was a need to cover increased demand for building materials.

Several significant dignitaries lived under Ahmose I. rule - the most famous was Ahmose, son of Ebana. He was a namesake of the Pharaoh, who was in command of a royal ship at early age. He also was in all great battles with Ahmose I. and always excelled in courage and heroism. Ahmose served to Amenhotep I. and Thutmose I. as well. It was under Thutmose I. rule, when Ahmose - despite his advanced age - led a campaign into Sudan and Anatolia.

Adored women of Ahmose

Ahmose I. was ardently celebrated and by the Egyptians and he was worshipped even long time after his death (he died approximately in 1,518 BC). Ahmose was buried in Dra' Abu el-Naga', but his mortuary cult was kept in Abydos.

Except the ruler also his grandmother Tetisheri and his mother Ahhotep I. (daughter of Tao I.) were worshipped there. Ahhotep took part in the reign of her husband Tao II. Seqenenre and she ruled herself as a regent at the time of Ahmose youth.

Also Ahmose's wife Ahmose-Nefertari took part actively in the reign. When her husband was at war, she was always in the lead of the land. After his death she ruled as a regent instead of son Amenhotep I. Later Ahmose-Nefertari became the first God's wife of Amun.

New Kingdom period

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It was only the founder of the 18th dynasty - Ahmose I., who ended the dominion of the Hyksos. New period of prosperity and flourishing of Egypt began with his accession to the throne.

18th dynasty

The founder of the 18th dynasty Ahmose I. banished the Hyksos out of Egypt, defeated the Nubians and gained back the territory captured for Egypt by Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty. Ahmose I. took care especially of state administration reorganization and religion resurgence. His son Amenhotep I. followed his efforts and let build a lot of temples. Thutmose I, the son of Amenhotep I, conquered Nubia up to the third cataract and he got up to river Euphrates in Asia.

Hatshepsut and Thutmose III.

Thutmose III was appointed as successor Thutmose II., but he wasn't old enough, so his step-mother Hatshepsut became a regent. But her regency became a real reign very quickly and it lasted for 22 years. Queen Hatshepsut came into history especially because of trading with the mysterious Land of Punt and the temple in Deir el-Bahari. 

Amenhotep IV. - a heretic Pharaoh

After the death of Amenhotep III. acceded to the throne by his son Amenhotep IV, likely the most famous ruler of this dynasty also known as "Heretic Pharaoh". Influenced by his wife Nefertiti he established Aten as the main solar god instead of Amun worshipped till that time and he accepted the name Akhenaten. He also moved from Thebes (Waset) to Akhetaten (today's el-Amarna) situated farther to the north. Young Tutankhaten came to the throne after Akhenaten's death, who returned to Thebes (Waset) and influenced by Amun's priesthood he renamed himself to Tutankhamun.

19th dynasty

Horemheb didn't have an inheritor, so he appointed another general as his successor, who came to the throne under the name Ramesses I. This ruler began with construction of the Great Hypostyle Hall in Karnak. His son Seti I. came back to a politics of conquest in Orient and Egypt was in a big boom again under his rule. The successor of Seti I. was Ramesses II who came down into history with 3 of his acts - winning over the Hittites at Kadesh, the lenght of his rule and the number of buildings he let build. Legendary Nefertari was his wife, to whom Ramesses II sacred a smaller temple in Abu Simbel.

Ramesses II. - The greatest Egyptian pharaoh

The prosperity and flourishing period finished in Egypt with the death of Ramesses II in 1,212 BC. Ramesses II left the throne to his thirteenth son Merenptah, who was around 60 at that time. Mereptah succeded in preserving the prestige of Egypt, made winning crusades into Libya and Asia, but the danger wasn't warded off. The position of superpowers was shaken by great moving of Indo-European nations at the end of 2nd millennium BC. The Hittites and the Assyrians were still more and more unpleasant rivals for Egypt.

20th dynasty (1,186 - 1,078 BC)

The last temporary calm period in Egypt was under Ramesses III. rule, the son of Setnakhte. Ramesses III. did extensive administrative and social reforms and strengthened the military system that was disrupted by anarchy lasting several years. There were economical troubles and conspiracies at end of Ramesses III. rule that were organized by people closed to Pharaoh and women from the royal harem.

The rules of Ramesses IV. to Ramesses XI. brought the anarchy and lands plunder again in Egypt. Neither of these Pharaohs was able to break through enough. The land split into two parts after death of the last Ramesses dynasty ruler. This period is marked as the Third intermediate period (1,078 - 715 BC).

Pharaohs 20th dynasty, 1186 - 1078 BC

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The last period of peace and stabilization in Egypt was under Ramesses III. rule. He did extensive administrative and social reforms and strengthened the military system. The end of his reign was marked by economical difficulties and conspiracies, which were organized by people closed to Pharaoh and women from the royal harem.

Neither of Ramesses III. successors was able to prevent anarchy and looting the land and break through enough. The land split into two parts after death of the last Ramesses dynasty ruler, Ramesses XI. This period is marked as the Third intermediate period (1,078 - 715 BC).

Pharaoh Reign Significant events
Setnakhte 3 years  
Ramesses III 32 years  he forced the sea nations to leave Egypt
Ramesses IV 7 years  
Ramesses V 3 years  
Ramesses VI 7 years  
Ramesses VII 7 years  
Ramesses VIII 1 year  
Ramesses IX 8 years  
Ramesses X 2 years  
Ramesses XI 27 years  

20th dynasty

Message from the Nile

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