Thutmose I.

Written by Felgr Pavel on .

Thutmose I.

Ahmose I. forced the Hyksos out of Egypt and was the first Pharaoh, who got to the banks of Euphrates. His successor Amenhotep I. continued in expansionary politics of his father. But it was the next ruler, who made the dream about conquest of Asia come true - Amenhotep's son Thutmose I.

Conqueror Thutmose I.

Thutmose I. was son of Amenhotep I. and one of his minor wives. Thutmose I. was the first Pharaoh, who fought with the Kingdom of Mitanni, which became a sworn enemy of Egypt for several decades. However, both lands unified later to fight against the Hittites.

Unfortunately we don't know much about the campaigns of Thutmose I. Amenhotep I. already began with conquering the Nubian area and Thutmose I. finished it and attached Nubia to Egyptian empire. It's hard to say if Thutmose I. set out through Pelusium, Jaffa and Megiddo to the banks of Euphrates or if he preferred the way over sea and landed more to the north in harbour Byblos.

The second variant is more likely (see map), because the Egyptians had excellent relationships with Byblos. Goods passed through this town, which Egypt needed necessarily - among others renowned wood of Lebanon cedar. Also the fact, that this Asian area of Palestina was conquered by his predecessors, indicates to the "marine variant". After landing the Egyptian soldieries set out to Orontes river, which flowed to the west from ancient town Ugarit. This town was over 3 thousand years old and was situated 150 kilometers to the north from Byblos.

Thutmose I. and kingdom of Mitanni

A land lay behind Orontes unknown till that time. Thutmose I. and his army crossed over this river and fetched up in hostile territory of the Kingdom of Mitanni. People of Mitanni were fierce warriors and several collisions already occured during Egyptian army.

This area was crucial for the Pharaoh, because Thutmose I. wanted to control the caravan path that connected Byblos and Ugarit with eastern areas of Anatolia, the Near East and the Kingdom of Mitanni. The Pharaoh was successful after several incursions, he gained Naharin as known as a "land of two rivers". Assyrian Kingdom that was inaccessible so far was situated behind Euphrates. But the king of Mitanni crossed the path of the Pharaoh. A battle took place to the south from town Carchemish and the Pharaoh's soldiery won this battle.

The reign of Thutmose I. means the beginnig of prosperity and a succefull campaign to the Euphrates confirmed the dominance of Egypt over surrounding world.

Thutmose I.

Thutmose I.

Message from the Nile

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    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

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    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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