Seti I.

Written by Felgr Pavel on .

Seti I.

Seti I. continued successfully with the politics of conquest, which Horemheb started with and also Ramesses I. was successful with it. The son of Ramesses I. - Seti I. fixed the borders of Egypt and even gained back a part of lost territories in Anatolia.

Conqueror Sethi I. 

Seti I.Seti I. clearly showed that a new era started in Egypt, when he came to the throne. Egypt was under Ramesses dynasty rule in this new era, which disassociated from their predecessors from 18th dynasty and they tried to follow in tradition of the Middle Kingdom Pharaohs.

The situation needed it - the Hittites became more and more dangerous in Asia and on the top of that a Bedouin tribe Shasu - supported just by the Hittites - took advantage of change of Pharaohs on Egyptian throne and seized around 20 fortresses along the Mediterranean coast.

Military expedition against a tribe Shasu 

Seti I was aware of threatening danger and therefore he started a campaign promptly after his coronation to suppress and eliminate the rebels. Seti I. inherited combativeness after his father, which was his decoration as well. So he set out the way of Horus against the Shasu tribe. He began his way in Qantarah and continued further along the coast. He conquered back Rafah during the advancement. His army was better trained and organised, so it moved forward quickly. Shasu were defeated badly in every battle from Caru to Canaan and Seti I. gained the lost fortresses back.

The Hittite King Muwatalli, who supported Shasu tribe, continued in closing various alliances against Egypt in spite of this indirect failure. A new coalition was established - the Hittites united with Amorites and Arameans this time. These two nations were better organised than the Bedouin tribe Shasu, so they were bigger danger for Egypt. But Seti I. proved his excellent sense for tactic, wedged between the two armies and defeated one after another. Encouraged by this victory Seti I. set out to the north and annexed Lebanon as well, which Kings surrendered to him without bigger resistance. Seti was welcomed by a cheering crowd, when he to Memphis (Mennefer). The victorious Pharaoh was followed by a huge army of captives and overwhelming booty.

The first battle of Kadesh

Seti I. had to face the threats from the Hittite ruler again in the third year of his reign. So he started a campaign again and it was again along the coast. He conquered the cities Akko a Tyr in the land of Amorites, then he broke deeper into the inland and got to Kadesh, the Hittite fortress that was considered as impregnable. It was right in front of this fortress, when the Egyptians fought against the Hittites for the first time. Seti I. won, but it hadn't been the crucial success yet. Finally both ruler agreed to sign a peace treaty, which accepted the river Orontes as a natural border between their lands.

Libyans and restless expedition to Nubia 

But Seti I. didn't enjoy the peace for long - the Libyans tried to get into Egypt from the west. Seti I. had to lead two campaigns to defeat their attempts for incursion. But the permanent peace - the Egyptians hoped for - didn't last for long. Seti had to face a rebellion of Nubians in the eighth year of his reign. Egypt needed the wealth of the Land of Kush and couldn't tolerate any attempts of hostile activities. The campaign into Nubia lasted for several months. A stele was found near the fourth cataract that came from the eleventh year of Seti's reign. It is a proof of the advance of Egyptian army, which penetrated into African inland as well as the troops of Thutmose III. long before them.

Joint government with Sethi I.

The wife of Seti I. was Tuya, who wasn't of royal ancestry - she was a daughter of chariots head commandant. The wise ruler tried to prevent the arguments around succession legitimacy, so Sethi I. appointed his son Ramesses II. his co-ruler in the eighth year of his reign to preserve the rule.

Ramesses II. was 15 years old then and during the next 10 years of co-ruling he proved as an attentive and purposeful successor. He showed as an intelligent, lively and tough youth then, who could handled a weapon brilliantly and he could control a chariot as an experienced warrior.

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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