New Kingdom period

Written by Felgr Pavel on .

It was only the founder of the 18th dynasty - Ahmose I., who ended the dominion of the Hyksos. New period of prosperity and flourishing of Egypt began with his accession to the throne.

18th dynasty

The founder of the 18th dynasty Ahmose I. banished the Hyksos out of Egypt, defeated the Nubians and gained back the territory captured for Egypt by Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty. Ahmose I. took care especially of state administration reorganization and religion resurgence. His son Amenhotep I. followed his efforts and let build a lot of temples. Thutmose I, the son of Amenhotep I, conquered Nubia up to the third cataract and he got up to river Euphrates in Asia.

Hatshepsut and Thutmose III.

Thutmose III was appointed as successor Thutmose II., but he wasn't old enough, so his step-mother Hatshepsut became a regent. But her regency became a real reign very quickly and it lasted for 22 years. Queen Hatshepsut came into history especially because of trading with the mysterious Land of Punt and the temple in Deir el-Bahari. 

Amenhotep IV. - a heretic Pharaoh

After the death of Amenhotep III. acceded to the throne by his son Amenhotep IV, likely the most famous ruler of this dynasty also known as "Heretic Pharaoh". Influenced by his wife Nefertiti he established Aten as the main solar god instead of Amun worshipped till that time and he accepted the name Akhenaten. He also moved from Thebes (Waset) to Akhetaten (today's el-Amarna) situated farther to the north. Young Tutankhaten came to the throne after Akhenaten's death, who returned to Thebes (Waset) and influenced by Amun's priesthood he renamed himself to Tutankhamun.

19th dynasty

Horemheb didn't have an inheritor, so he appointed another general as his successor, who came to the throne under the name Ramesses I. This ruler began with construction of the Great Hypostyle Hall in Karnak. His son Seti I. came back to a politics of conquest in Orient and Egypt was in a big boom again under his rule. The successor of Seti I. was Ramesses II who came down into history with 3 of his acts - winning over the Hittites at Kadesh, the lenght of his rule and the number of buildings he let build. Legendary Nefertari was his wife, to whom Ramesses II sacred a smaller temple in Abu Simbel.

Ramesses II. - The greatest Egyptian pharaoh

The prosperity and flourishing period finished in Egypt with the death of Ramesses II in 1,212 BC. Ramesses II left the throne to his thirteenth son Merenptah, who was around 60 at that time. Mereptah succeded in preserving the prestige of Egypt, made winning crusades into Libya and Asia, but the danger wasn't warded off. The position of superpowers was shaken by great moving of Indo-European nations at the end of 2nd millennium BC. The Hittites and the Assyrians were still more and more unpleasant rivals for Egypt.

20th dynasty (1,186 - 1,078 BC)

The last temporary calm period in Egypt was under Ramesses III. rule, the son of Setnakhte. Ramesses III. did extensive administrative and social reforms and strengthened the military system that was disrupted by anarchy lasting several years. There were economical troubles and conspiracies at end of Ramesses III. rule that were organized by people closed to Pharaoh and women from the royal harem.

The rules of Ramesses IV. to Ramesses XI. brought the anarchy and lands plunder again in Egypt. Neither of these Pharaohs was able to break through enough. The land split into two parts after death of the last Ramesses dynasty ruler. This period is marked as the Third intermediate period (1,078 - 715 BC).

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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