Written by Felgr Pavel on .


Horemheb came from a noble family from Hutnesut - former Alabastronpolis (now Kom el-Ahmar Sauris), devotees of the god Horus.

Horemheb - from soldier to general

Horemheb connected his entire carrier with the army. He was already a general under Amenhotepa IV. - Akhenaten rule. He accepted the ideas of Akhenaten then, but maybe it was only a calculation, because he supported the priesthood of Amun later and was loyal to the young Pharaoh at the same time. He was more popular in Thebes (Waset) than any other commander. Horemheb was an excellent tactician and soldiers loved him. He was both respected and awed. He was in a campaign into Palestina with young Tutankhamun that should strenghtened the protection of Egyptian boundaries, which were endangered by the Hittites.

Tutankhamun died unexpectedly at the age of twenty and a question of succession had to be solved.  Horemheb ceded the throne to the high priest Ay, even if he was a powerful top official of Egypt. Ay was former minister of Akhenaten and charioteer leader. It was just Ay, who led the funeral of Tutankhamun, the ceremony of "Mouth opening" included. This ceremony was reserved for the throne inheritor only.

Horemheb proved to be a great diplomat under Ay rule and when Ay died, noboudy could cast doubt upon Horemheb's right to the throne. So he became a new Egyptian Pharaoh and ended a long reign of Ahmose I descendants. It was already in year 1,318 BC.

The name of Akhenaten had to be forgotten

HoremhebYoung Tutankhamun influenced by Ay began with returning to the cult of Amun. Tutankhamun signed an edict that ruled restoring cults and pilloried craziness of his predecessor. Horemheb went even further - he dated start of his reign from the death of Amenhotep III. and whole Atenism, the reign of Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun and Ay, should have been forgotten and erased forever. He let raze Akhetaten, the cursed city, let erase the name of Akhenaten out of all temples and buildings and he even overwrote the name of Tutankhamun with his own name.

The reign of Horemheb lasted for 27 years and he tried to strenghtened the established order and was also a great buider. Thanks to him the temple of Ay was extended in Medinet Habu and buildings in Memphis (Mennefer) were constructed, which was his favourite place. Horemheb also built in Karnak, where he began with construction of a pillar hall and raised the 9th and 10th pylon in the south and the 2nd pylon in the west. Apart from the tomb in Saqqara, he also let build a tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

The social order was established again under Horemheb rule and he initiated an institut of judge and regional courts in an effort to prevent the corruption and power abusing by officials. Horemheb established two various law systems in the Upper and Lower Egypt and entrusted the lands to two viziers, whose direct superior was only Horemheb. The army was reorganized as well; it was divided into two parishes - one in the south and the other in the north. Horemheb died in 1,292 BC.

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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