Gods of Egypt - Sekhmet, Seth, Shu, Sobek, Sokar

Written by Felgr Pavel on .



Goddess Sekhmet was a cruel form of goddess Hathor, Bast (cat goddess in Bubastis in Nile Delta) or mother goddess Mut. In her temple in Karnak was situated an enermous amount of Sekhmet's statues under the rule of Amenhotep III. of 18. dynasty (approximately 1390-1352 BC) - it seems one statuette was determinated to each day.

Goddess Sekhmet was associated with war and battle and helped the kings to defeat their enemies. Her name means literally "Strong", therefore Sekhmet was depicted as a lioness or a woman with lioness head. Sekhmet wore the sun disc on her head, which reminded she is Ra's daughter. Sekhmet was wife of creator Ptah and mother of Nefertum and was a very important goddess in Memphis.


God Seth was Osiris' evil brother. He was a member of Heliopolis' divine family and was associated with chaos, infertility and desert. The rulers of 19. and 20.dynasty derived their names just of this god - e.g. Sethi and Sutnacht. His cult believed, that the chaos ruled before the existence of order.

His main cult centre was Naqada in Upper Egypt. According to tradition it was just Naqada, where he was suddenly born from the goddess Nut. God Seth was depicted as an animal, whose identity can't be precisely defined. It had long crooked beak, erected angular ears, body of a dog and forked tail. Sometimes he was also depicted as a human with animal head. He could be depicted as a pig, donkey or hippo as well - see the myth About Horus' and Seth' rivalry.


ShuGod Shu was air and sunlight personification. His name probably means "The one, who rises up". Egyptians believed, that he revived the sun every morning and protected it from the snake-demon Apep. Shu was often associated with moon god Thoth and Khonsu as well. Even if it seems unlikely, Shu was considered as demon pack leader, who threatened with departends torture.

God Shu was depicted as a human with a plume on his head and standing between his children Geb and Nut, who he protected. In case of association with Eye of Ra he could also be depicted with lion's head. He was especially worshipped in Leontopolis in Nile delta.


Crocodile god Sobek was depicted as a reptile or a human with crocodille head. He was worshipped in Faiyum and in a temple in Kom Ombo. Sobek was associated with pharaoh's power and he was worshipped as a sun deity in a form Sobek-Ra. His wife was Hathor and Khonsu was considered as their son (presented everywhere as son of Amun and Mut).


God Sokar was associated with the land and yield, sometimes also with death and funerary place of the capital Memphis (Mennefer). His association with undertaker led to his consolidation with Osiris. Because of his significance among Memphis' gods, the most significant Memphis' deity Ptah-Sokar-Osiris was made. Sokar's connection with Ptah meant, they had the same wife - lion goddess Sekhmet. In pyramid texts he was descripted as a creator of royal bones. He was depicted as a mummified human, with a hawk's head sometimes. His wooden statuettes were found in tombs together with large amount of other funerary equipment.

His main cult centre was Memphis (Mennefer). During the festivals helds to his tribute Sokar's votaries wore ropes of onions on their neck. Onion was used by embalming - its peels or whole bulbs were places on eyes or put into ears or abdomen.

Sekhmet   Seth   Sokar   Sobek
Sekhmet   Seth   Sokar   Sobek

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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