Aker, Amun, Anat, Anubis, Astarte, Atum

Written by Felgr Pavel on .



Aker was an earth god and guarded the eastern and western horizon, the entrance and exit of the Underworld. God Aker often appeared in funerary texts and images. He was depicted as two opposing lions or as a strip of land with a lion or human head at each end (one faces east, while the other faces west).


God Amun gained the head of pantheon status in New Kingdom period. It was especially thanks to success of local Theban rulers, who unified the Egypt again after disintegration period and they mastered the counter. God Amun is descripted as "king of gods" on White chapel of Pharaoh Senusret I. in Karnak. He gained the importance thanks to merging with the ancient Heliopolis' sun god Ra and became the deity Amun-Ra. He was connected with fertility god Min as well - god Amun-Min.

The name means "The hidden one" or "the secred one" although he is usually depicted with human body and a double plumed crown. God Amun was also known as a ram with horns turned to his head. His wife was vulture goddess Mut and their son was moon god Khonsu.


War goddess Anat should protect the pharaoh in battle. Therefore she was often depicted with a spear, javelin and shield. She had also a high crown decorated with plums above. She came from Canaan - she was the goddess of Canaanite and Phoenecians. She was allegedly sister of even wife of the highest phoenecian god Baal. This is the proof, that the Egyptians borrowed neighbouring nations deities.


Anubis was ancient god of embalming and cemeteries in Old Kingdom period before Osiris became the god of deads. People prayed to him to lead the deceased to their posthumous life. Then he helped with the judging the deads and led the deceased to Osiris' throne - to the heart weighing ritual. Anubis was depicted as a jackal or a man with jackal's head. The priests, who prepared bodies for funeral, wore Anubis's masks.


Goddess Astarte is similar to goddess Anat. Astarte is associated with war as well (especially with horses and martial carriages) and she was pleaded to protected the ruler in war. There is no mention about her cult in Egypt till 18. dynasty period. Goddess Astarte was usually depicted as naked woman with atef throne or with bull's horns on head riding a horse. Astarte was considered as wife of Seth or daughter of Ra or Ptah.


A mound of earth rose from Nun (ancient waters) and upon it god Atum created himself and universe elements. Atum was the head of Ennead (nine gods and goddesses) and had the title "Master of sky bounds". His cult center was Heliopolis. Atum was often associated with royal power and it was believed that he takes out the deads out of pyramids to stars. Later he was protector of all deads on their road to posthumous life.

Aker   Amun   Anat  
Aker   Amun   Anat  
Anubis   Astarte   Atum  
Anubis   Astarte   Atum  

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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