Egypt in Archaic period

Written by Felgr Pavel on .

The cultures of the Paleolithic Age remained in Egypt until 6th Millenium BC. So the Neolithic Age began there later than in the Near East. Gradually 2 cultures developed there - one in Upper Egypt and the other in Nile Delta.

According to some sources the first human being already appeared in Egypt 700,000 years BC. The oldest trails of a human being are stone tools in the Nile valley. The existence of bands is documented in several places in Paleolithic Age. Bifaces and other things found between Cairo and Sudanese Khartoum are 300,000 years old. But the stone working was more similar to the technique used in North Africa - the Sahara and Sudan at the end of Paleolithic Age (25,000 - 10,000 years BC).

There was a significant climate change approximately 10,000 years BC, that meant mostly greater amount of rainfall. Nile water raised, the inhabitants moved closer to the Sahara and just this population started with making ceramics, picking wild cereals and probably also learning how to domesticate bulls. However, there was a dry season toward the end of 6th Millenium BC and therefore the inhabitants returned to the Nile again. This situation led to formation of 2 neolithic cultures - the first in Nile Delta and the second in Upper Egypt.

The population settled down, animals were domesticated and the agriculture grew in Neolithic Age. We must search the origin of Neolithic Age in Egypt in the territory of recent Syria and Iraq, from where sheep, goats, flax and wheat came to Egypt. However, there were found traces of barley planting in Egyptian Western Desert from the time around 6,000 years BC. So there is a possibility, that Egyptian Neolithic Age has double origin.

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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