Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egyptian history

From historical point of view Ancient Egypt is the oldest state in the world. It is interesting not only for its numerous monuments (pyramids in Saqqara, pyramids in Abusir, pyramids in Giza, temples in Karnak, temples in Luxor, Ramesseum and many others), that survived the centuries and for today's generation they are silent witnesses of bygone times. Only two centuries sufficed to two different cultures consolidation (southern part - Upper Egypt - and northern part - Lower Egypt).


Pharaohs of ancient EgyptA Pharaoh was an earthly son of Ra, the highest of all deities. He was considered as living Horus – a reincarnation and a legitimate successor of the first mythic King Horus, falcon god and son of Isis and Osiris, who inherited Egypt from his father.


Architecture of ancient EgyptA great building boom began in the Old Kingdom period. Especially Pharaohs of the 4th dynasty let built real masterpieces in Giza. Except pyramids, there are beautiful temples, tombs in the Valley of the Kings and other outstanding buildings in Egypt.


Script of ancient EgyptEgyptian hieroglyphs emerged around 3,100 BC. At first the Egyptians wrote on plant materials, e.g. wood, leaves or bark. The eldest preserved records were inscripted into stone, ivory tablets or clay objects.


Religion of ancient EgyptAncient Egyptians worshipped a lot of gods. The art of ancient Egypt created an incredible variety of crowns and head decorations of Egyptian gods. Except hieroglyphic inscriptions, these head decorations were the base for identity identification of the given god.


Egyptologists and EgyptologyEgyptology studies the pyramids’ and temples’ origins and the life of common people and the Kings as well. The Czech Egyptology is dated from 1878. The Czech Institute of Egyptology was founded in Prague and Cairo in 1958. Its first director was Zbyněk Žába.

Everyday life

Everyday life of ancient EgyptThe vast majority of Egyptians in cities had to be content with little in their everyday life. However, the life wasn’t more idyllic in the country – the peasants had to pay high taxes. They lived in an incessant fear of starvation, which could come after a poor harvest.

Message from the Nile

  • History of Czech institution of egyptology

    The Czech egyptology founder is Frantisek Lexa, the author of up to now evaluated work about ancient Egypt magic and Demotic grammar. Seminar for egyptology started thanks to him in Faculty of Philosophy and Arts of Charles University in Prague in 1925. Two years later Lexa became the first regular professor of egyptology in then Czechoslovakia.

  • Abusir - outstation of Czech egyptology expedition

    Abusir is an archaeological locality in Egypt named after nearby recent village Abusir. It is situated on western Nile bank on the edge of Libyan tableland approximately 20 kilometers to the south-west of Cairo. The name of this locality is derived from ancient Egypt god Osiris, from Per Usir (Busiris), "(cult) place of Osiris" (Busiris in Greek).

  • Researches in Western desert

    Czech egyptology is successful in researching not only on pyramidal fields in Abusir recently, but also in supporting and organizing smaller expeditions into egyptian Western desert. Czech expedition has been working even in slowly evanescent oasis El-Hajez since 2003, which is situated about 400 km to the south-west from Cairo.

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